Miscellaneous items to be sorted
Family Therapy: The First Twenty-Five Years, Philip I. Guerin, Ir., M.D. This 22 page PDF seems to be the first chapter of a book. Mentions the Hillcrest Series of 16mm films.
Keynote Address of Carl Whitaker, M.D. offered to the First International Congress on Ericksonian Approaches to Hypnosis and Psychotherapy in December 1980, posted by Jeffrey K. Zeig, Ph.D. Director of The Milton H. Erickson Foundation.
The inner life of the consultant
Whitaker, Carl; Simons, Joseph.
Andolfi, Maurizio [Ed]; Haber, Russell [Ed]. (1994). Please help me with this family: Using consultants as resources in family therapy. (pp. 66-70). xvii, 294 pp. Philadelphia, PA, US: Brunner/Mazel; US.
(from the chapter) [suggest that] the consultation experience [in family therapy] is an exciting and creative process that provides the consultant with an opportunity to be more of him or herself than is possible for a therapist (who is working to be the “responsible foster parent”) / the consultant comes into the therapeutic family as a visitor-a guest who arrives and will stay for only a short time, and who knows that by being aware of who he or she is while visiting, and that by talking creatively about the house and everyone’s place in it (without actually moving any furniture or rearranging any of the pictures on the walls) changes will be set in motion, and the therapist is likely as a result to have greater therapeutic leverage than before the visit began
The process of in-therapy consultation: A symbolic-experiential perspective
Connell, Gary M; Whitaker, Carl; Garfield, Robert; Connell, Linda.
Journal of Strategic & Systemic Therapies. Vol.9(1), Spr 1990, pp. 32-38.
Describes the process of in-therapy consultation used in symbolic-experiential psychotherapy when an impasse has developed. The rationale of consultation in family therapy is discussed, and interactional patterns are delineated. Stages of consultation discussed are entry into the therapy system, describing the impasse, creating confusion in the role of stress activator, and termination. The use of a consultant in ongoing therapy helps the system to be more personal and allows the therapeutic relationship to be examined and supplemented by a consultant’s binocular view of the therapy.
Thoughts about sex, love, and intimacy
Kantor, David [Ed]; Okun, Barbara F [Ed]. (1989). Intimate environments: Sex, intimacy, and gender in families. (pp. 108-128). xvi, 394 pp. New York, NY, US: Guilford Press; US.
(from the chapter) what is a family / difference between the sexes / evolution of a new family / interplay of sex, intimacy, and love / intimacy models / disruption of intimacy / activation of intimacy / psychotherapy and issues of love and intimacy / transference / training for the prevention of sexualization of family therapy / personal responses (from the preface) discusses the use of the therapist’s personhood as the context for therapy / sensitive to personal and professional boundary issues / elucidates the dangers inherent in the therapy process when these boundaries are not respected / clarifies the difference between sexual and loving relationships and between intimate and performance sex.
On teaching psychotherapy via consultation and cotherapy
Whitaker, Carl; Garfield, Robert.
Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal. Vol.9(1-2), Spr-Sum 1987, pp. 106-115.
Presents basic assumptions about teaching psychotherapy, expectations of the trainer and trainees in the teaching relationship, and empowerment of the trainee in his/her professional growth. A dialog about consultation and cotherapy is included.
The psychotherapeutic impasse
Whitaker, Carl A; Warkentin, John; Johnson, Nan.
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. Vol.20(3), Jul 1950, pp. 641-647.
In brief psychotherapy it occasionally happens that therapy progresses for a time, and then bogs down. This is more particularly a problem with the type of psychotherapy which depends on the patient-doctor relationship per se, and which utilizes a minimum of reassurance, advice or interpretation. To limit this paper it seems wise to disregard the problem of inertia in initiating therapy. The purpose of this paper is to describe the impasse, its etiology, and offer methods for resolving it.
Reshaping family symbols: A symbolic-experiential perspective
Connell, Gary M; Mitten, Tammy J; Whitaker, Carl A.
Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. Vol.19(3), Jul 1993, pp. 243-251.
Discusses the role of symbols in symbolic-experiential therapy. The authors posit that the best way to convey an understanding of the symbolic process of family therapy is through sharing fantasies, metaphors, and stories. Language is used to communicate with the family and to alter their beliefs. The personal relationship between the therapist and the family is also said to be crucial in this process. The authors assert that as the therapeutic relationship evolves, spontaneous use of languages can deepen the relationship among all participants, providing the context for change.
Symbolic experiential family therapy: Model and methodology.
Whitaker, Carl A.
Zeig, Jeffrey K [Ed]. (1992). The evolution of psychotherapy: The second conference. (pp. 13-23). xviii, 334 pp. Philadelphia, PA, US: Brunner/Mazel; US.
(from the chapter) Carl Whitaker’s approach has been named “the experiential school” / describes essential aspects of his symbolic approach / typical of his style, the chapter is a symbolic growth-promoting experience for therapists, rather than an objective comment on his method of [family] therapy I want to talk about the therapist / I want to talk about the capacity for openness and the capacity for restructuring your work as you go along / I also want to discuss the use of power (create) This chapter is followed by a discussion by Paul Watzlawick.
Group supervision in symbolic experiential family therapy
Keith, David V; Connell, Gary; Whitaker, Carl A.
Journal of Family Psychotherapy. Vol.3(1), 1992, pp. 93-109.
Describes a pattern of group supervision for symbolic experiential family therapy based on the spirit of mutual collaboration between the supervisor and group members. The most important indications and contraindications for using the model reside in the supervisor, and the extent to which these methods coincide with or augment preestablished supervisory patterns. Through discussion of clinical work, merging supervision with consultation, the supervision group supports the development of a professional identity, acts as a family therapy laboratory, and provides a consciousness-raising environment for the group members. The model works best with senior level trainees or therapists in practice. The case example of a 46-yr-old therapist who qualified at 43 yrs illustrates this point.
A symbolic-experiential approach to the resolution of therapeutic obstacles in family therapy
Keith, David V; Connell, Gary M; Whitaker, Carl A.
Journal of Family Psychotherapy. Vol.2(3), 1991, pp. 41-56.
Describes some common stress points encountered in family therapy. Ways of defeating the resulting inertia using the symbolic-experiential approach are suggested to help the therapy process to remain alive. These obstacles may materialize separately or as clusters in the space of one interview. Obstacles and strategies are divided into (1) emotional issues (originating with the therapist and originating with the family) and (2) technique-related obstacles. Several case examples are given to illustrate the technique.
General family therapy
Whitaker, Carl A; Framo, James L; Weeks, Gerald R.
Zeig, Jeffrey K [Ed]; Munion, W. Michael [Ed]. (1990). What is psychotherapy?: Contemporary perspectives. (pp. 256-265). xxviii, 447 pp. San Francisco, CA, US: Jossey-Bass; US.
(from the book) [book section covering several chapters] “Symbolic Experiential Therapy” / Carl A. Whitaker “Intergenerational Family Therapy” / James L. Framo “Paradox” / Gerald R. Weeks
Contrasting child psychiatry and family therapy
Keith, David V; Westman, Jack C; Whitaker, Carl A.
Child Psychiatry and Human Development. Vol.19(2), Win 1988, pp. 87-97.
Contends that the differences between the clinical approaches of child psychiatrists and family therapists revolve around 2 fundamental principles. (1) Child psychiatry is a health-care field of practice, while family therapy is a diagnostic and therapeutic methodology that mental health clinicians may use in different settings. (2) Whereas child psychiatrists use a multisystem model in working with people at the individual, family, organizational, and societal system levels, family therapists limit their focus to the family system level. For the child psychiatrist, individual family members are patients; for the family therapist, the family is the patient.
The presence of the past: Continuity and change in the symbolic structure of families
Keith, David V; Whitaker, Carl A.
Falicov, Celia Jaes [Ed]. (1988). Family transitions: Continuity and change over the life cycle. (pp. 431-447). xx, 476 pp. New York, NY, US: Guilford Press; US.
(from the chapter) family rituals are the hot spots for the process of changing and staying the same the family group psychosis outgrowing the family life cycle symbolic reality: blending fantasy and fact the lens of the present: focusing the past on the future birth as symbolic paradigm ritual expression of the family psychosis family psychosis and illness the pragmatics of symbolic experience / gathering historical facts / the framework of the interview / the symbolic meaning of experience / the therapy process
Dancing with the family: A symbolic-experiential approach
Whitaker, Carl A; Bumberry, William M.
(1988). Dancing with the family: A symbolic-experiential approach. ix, 233 pp. Philadelphia, PA, US: Brunner/Mazel; US.
(from the jacket) This intensely moving and illuminating volume vividly describes Carl Whitaker’s ideas, treatment methods, and his warm, caring approach as revealed through his work with one family. The book includes lively verbatim transcripts of the therapy sessions side by side with Dr. Whitaker’s comments on the thinking behind his interventions and on the family’s reactions and progress. Throughout the text, the rich clinical work is enhanced by theoretical material, including Dr. Whitaker’s views of the nature of families, the role of the therapist, the therapist’s use of self, and the goals of therapy. Additionally, there are a number of focused discussion sections where Dr. Whitaker directly responds to a variety of challenging and probing questions regarding his approach. The book also includes follow-up sessions with the family members three years later, which cast a bright light on the basic changes that have taken place. This book is a most significant addition to the field and will be invaluable to all family therapists.
Play therapy: A paradigm for work with families
Keith, David V; Whitaker, Carl A.
Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. Vol.7(3), Jul 1981, pp. 243-254.
Compares play therapy and the authors’ style of family therapy, both of which are largely based in symbolic cues and repeated shifts between metaphor and reality. Therapy sessions involve manipulating role-reversals, teaching acting-out behavior, and using absurdity to overcome rigid family situations. Play therapy may be used in cases of (a) difficult, long-standing pathology, (b) a family that declares itself normal despite clear pathology, or (c) a family lacking cohesion. Contraindications include families characterized by extreme rigidity and those disordered by difficult life situations. Clinical examples are used to illustrate many of these methods. (13 ref)
Struggling with the impotence impasse: Absurdity and acting-in
Keith, David V; Whitaker, Carl A.
Journal of Marriage and Family Counseling. Vol.4(1), Jan 1978, pp. 69-77.
Psychotherapists are forced to face the troubling fact of their inefffectiveness. Part of the sense of uselessness arises out of going face-to-face with family systems. Another part is based in the therapist’s theoretical orientation. Two methods (absurdity, to push the situation to its ridiculous limit; and acting-in, a method for increasing the level of affect and intimacy) for breaking out of this double paralysis are described. Both methods are illustrated with clinical examples.
Family microevents: Communication patterns for problem solving
Metcoff, Jill; Whitaker, Carl A.
Walsh, Froma [Ed]. (1982). Normal family processes. (pp. 251-274). xxi, 486 pp. New York, NY, US: Guilford Press; US.
(from the chapter) focus on repetitive family patterns, but . . . theorize that they are not as much homeostatic mechanisms as they are continuously self-modifying, evolving structures for family communication around perceived problem areas / describe these patterns as created, modified, passed on and remodified through the generations as a structure to negotiate and resolve the day-to-day problems that arise as family members interact and grow older together / each microevent can be simply described as a way, developed through the generations, in which people operate in families provide a detailed behavioral description of a microevent as seen in a clinical interview in order to clarify the type of redundant sequence we are describing / examine the effects of therapeutic intervention in these sequences to illustrate the microevent as a family structure for growth and change
Symbolic-experiential family therapy [Italian]
Whitaker, Carl A; Keith, David M.
Terapia Familiare: Rivista Interdisciplinare di Ricerca e Intervento Relazionale. Vol.11 Jun 1982, pp. 95-134.
Explains the techniques of symbolic-experiential therapy adopted by the authors as co-therapists to upset the pathological homeostasis that lies at the roots of many of the dysfunctional family’s problems. The normal family is characterized by openness to change, the ability to play “as-if” games, and intergenerational solidarity combined with individual differentiation and independence. The dysfunctional family, in contrast, exhibits homeostatic rigidity and various unresolved stress situations, especially conflicts arising from the choice of 1 of the 2 spouses’ families of origin as a family role model. In the family psychotherapy model under discussion, all members of a trigenerational family must participate in the therapy sessions, which the therapists conduct by playing grandparent and trainer roles, using the language of symbol and metaphor, free association, humor, and jokes. Therapists must also watch their own behaviors and attitudes toward individual members of the client family and the family as a whole. (This article was originally published in the Handbook of Family Therapy, edited by A. S. Gurman and D. P. Kniskern ). (11 ref)
Sex, love, and the committed relationship
Whitaker, Carl A.
Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy. Vol.2(4), Win 1976, pp. 263-264.
Discusses implications of an editorial by C. J. Sager (1976) which considered the role of sex and love in marriage. Although it has long been held that sexual adjustment is a good indicator of the quality of the loving relationship between both partners, Sager pointed out that this is not necessarily true. The present author supports Sager’s belief that sex, love, and commitment may covary positively or negatively, and extends Sager’s concept that “we-ness” and “I-ness” must be in continual reciprocal balance by postulating that an increase in one can only develop with an increase in the other. It is argued that each of the three parameters discussed by Sager can be discussed separately, and that much remains to be learned about each of them.
The symptomatic adolescent: An AWOL family member
Whitaker, Carl A.
Sugar, Max [Ed]. (1975). The adolescent in group and family therapy. xvii, 286 pp. Oxford, England: Brunner/Mazel; England.
Presents a review of studies on the use of behavior modification with learning-disabled or perceptually disabled children. The theory and methodology of behavior modification is examined, along with data on its effectiveness in changing academic behaviors (e.g., reading and writing skills) and other cognitive and motor abilities. (91/2 p ref)
New approaches to residency training in psychiatry
Whitaker, Carl A; Abroms, Gene M.
Farwell, Gail F; Gamsky, Neal R; Mathieu-Coughlan, Philippa. (1974). The counselor’s handbook. x, 530 pp. Oxford, England: Intext; England.
Considers that the new approach to psychiatric residency training attempts to transcend provincialism and the use of single techniques by emphasizing a radical commitment to eclectic and existential values. Implications for supervision, case presentations, and team membership are discussed.
Techniques of the family therapy process [Spanish]
Whitaker, Carl A; Napier, August Y.
Neurologia, Neurocirugia, Psiquiatria. Vol.14(2-3), 1973, pp. 79-105.
Reviews concepts on which the author bases his approach to family therapy. Situations which produce different types of therapists are described, and personal involvement and growth for both for the therapist and the family are advocated. The advantage of using a 2-person therapist team is pointed out, and the phases of family therapy are discussed. (11/2 p ref)
My philosophy of psychotherapy
Whitaker, Carl A.
Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy. Vol.6(1), Win 1973, pp. 49-52.
Explains his reasons for specializing in family or group therapy, and his conviction that profound personal involvement with patients is essential in his treatment. The “psychotherapy of the absurd” is described, a tactic of positive feedback, in which pathology is intensified until the symptoms self-destruct. As a result of intensely sharing his patients’ problems, the therapist receives help from them as well as giving it.
Multiple therapy and its variations
Whitaker, Carl A.
Goldman, George D; Milman, Donald S. (1972). Innovations in psychotherapy. xxii, 293 pp. Oxford, England: Charles C Thomas; England.
Discusses multiple therapy as a method for improving the effectiveness, safety, and creativity of the therapist. The advantages of multiple therapy in training, therapist growth, research, and treatment are considered. Variations in the roles of the cotherapist (e.g., as a consultant or facilitator of the ending process) and considerations in case and cotherapist choice are discussed.
The family enters the hospital
Abroms, Gene M; Fellner, Carl H; Whitaker, Carl A.
The American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol.127(10), Apr 1971, pp. 1363-1370.
Presents a preliminary report of 18-mo full-time inpatient treatment of 100 patients and their families. Although a therapeutic impasse dictated most family admissions, the index Ss improved as much as nonfamily-patient controls. The fact of family admission was a powerful therapeutic act in itself. Because the program was intense and short-term, it gave little opportunity for Ss to regress. A discussion of results is meant to be only suggestive and preparatory to an adequately controlled investigation. More use of this type of treatment and less of the customary “dilute” outpatient care is recommended.
The territory chart as a platform for family therapy
Whitaker, Carl A.
Voices: the Art & Science of Psychotherapy. Vol.6(2), Fal 1970, pp. 95-97.
Presents material from 2 families in treatment which indicates that the development of territorial definitions in the family structure may ease tension in the family and enable psychotherapy to be more successful.
Family psychotherapy of a psychopathic personality: Must every member change?
Whitaker, Carl A; Burdy, Janet.
Comprehensive Psychiatry. Vol.10(5), 1969, pp. 361-364.
Presents “a rationale for family treatment in which the parents function as the stable platform on which the treatment team and the identified patient engage in a therapeutic process that demands no change in the parents. In stark contrast with the usual family chaos with everyone in therapy, this patient changed and the others did not.”
A reevaluation of “psychiatric help” when divorce impends
Whitaker, Carl A; Miller, Milton H.
The American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol.126(5), 1969, pp. 611-618.
Psychotherapeutic intervention on 1 side or another in a marriage when divorce is being considered may serve to destroy the possibility of reconciliation. Despite the therapist’s efforts to remain neutral, he inevitably finds himself thrust into the role of catalyst, judge, or “alternate mate.” The inclusion of both partners, as well as children and perhaps other family members, in the therapeutic situation is suggested as 1 means of avoiding an outcome that may ultimately prove detrimental to all.
Existentialism in American psychiatry: Ten years later
Miller, Milton H; Whitaker, Carl A; Fellner, Carl H.
The American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol.125(8), 1969, pp. 1112-1115.
AB In the early 1950s it seemed that existentialism was destined to have a major influence upon American psychiatry. The important professional changes which have occurred during the last decade are assessed, and existential influences upon these changes are described. Even though a distinct existential movement has not developed, existential thinkers have contributed substantially to the emerging American psychiatry.
Experiential psychotherapy: Evaluation of relatedness
Whitaker, Carl A; Warkentin, John; Malone, Thomas P; Felder, Richard E.
Journal of Existential Psychiatry. Vol.3(11), 1963, pp. 247-254.
The authors have used the familiar game of checkers as a projective test method to evaluate the therapeutic relationship in situ. Its usefulness has been demonstrated in selected cases, where it has served to uncover transference and countertransference difficulties.”
The usefulness of craziness
Warkentin, John; Felder, Richard E; Malone, Thomas P; Whitaker, Carl A.
Medical Times. Vol.89 1961, pp. 587-590.
Craziness, defined as “being spontaneous to the exclusion of a concern with cultural conformity for the time being a giving up of previous personality organization, with its restrictions, limitations and inhibitions, to find a more satisfying way of living with ourselves and with our fellow man,” is an “important part of human experience.” The freedom to be irrational lends richness and variety to life. In some cases the “capacity to permit oneself to become disorganized facilitates mental health . Useful craziness provides experiences which extend the growing edge of the person.” From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3JA87W.
Rational and non-rational psychotherapy: A reply
Malone, Thomas P; Whitaker, Carl A; Warkentin, John; Felder, Richard E.
American Journal of Psychotherapy. Vol.15 1961, pp. 212-220.
A reply to the Wolf and Schwartz critique of “The Roots of Psychotherapy.” Points of agreement and disagreement are stressed. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:1IE12M.
The Involvement of the Professional Therapist
Whitaker, Carl A; Warkentin, John; Malone, Thomas P.
Burton, Arthur [Ed]. (1959). Case studies in counseling and psychotherapy. (pp. 218-256). x, 431 pp. Oxford, England; Englewood Cliffs, NJ, US: Prentice-Hall; Prentice-Hall, Inc; England; US.
(from the chapter) The patient (Hilda) was a thirty-year-old, married female with the chief complaints of repeated severe depressions, psychotic behavior, and suicide attempts. The onset of the present episode was associated with sexual infidelity, followed by paranoid delusions that her lover would kill her. Four months after the onset the illness developed into a catatonic muteness. Psychotherapeutic efforts at this time were unsuccessful. Seven months after the onset she attempted suicide by wrecking her automobile and was hospitalized for serious physical injuries. She was transferred to a psychiatric hospital and treated with insulin shock. One month later she attempted suicide by cutting her wrists and her inguinal ligaments. A week later she had improved to the extent that she was discharged from the hospital. On the day of discharge she turned on the gas in her room in a large hotel and the subsequent explosion destroyed a large part of the building. The patient was not seriously injured and was returned to the hospital for insulin and electric shock. Shortly thereafter her attempt to commit suicide by leaping out a window was frustrated and she was transferred to another hospital as too severe a suicidal risk. There she was diagnosed as schizophrenic, progressive, and the family was told that no matter what was done she would probably kill herself. Three weeks later she was referred to the authors for treatment. The authors saw four therapeutic problems. The first was the satisfaction of the patient’s dependent oral need, as indicated by her thumb-sucking, obesity, sexual promiscuity, and preoccupation with oral sexual behavior. The second objective was helping the patient to find a better way to express her hostility, previously expressed by her acting-out, her repeated suicidal attempts, and her severe depressions. The third need was the resolution of her infantile sexual anxieties. The authors saw the Oedipal problem as an inability to relate to both parents simultaneously. Her sexual anxieties had been previously indicated by her frigidity, excessive shame, her fear of men, a preference for impotent or older men, her hatred of her body, and impulses to destroy her breasts and her sexual organs. The fourth problem was the resolution of the flatness of her psychosis by an attempt to induce some experience of positive affect in her through her participation in a relationship where others were expressing positive affect. The need for this was indicated by her cynical indifference, emotional withdrawal, fear of being touched or of any positive affect, and the precipitation of suicidal impulses by positive emotional experiences. The process notes of her treatment are provided.
Psychotherapy with couples
Whitaker, Carl A.
American Journal of Psychotherapy. Vol.12 1958, pp. 18-23.
“This is a preliminary report on the treatment of couples in psychotherapy as a method which is psychotherapeutically useful. This method of treatment limits the transference involvement with the therapist and minimizes counter-transference problems. It is a method of choice with certain diagnostic categories and also seems to picture some new patterns in psychopathology.”
Psychotherapy of chronic schizophrenic patients
Whitaker, Carl A [Ed].
(1958). 219 pp. Oxford, England: Little, Brown; England.
Seven practicing psychiatrists and an anthropologist exchange views on treatment of chronic schizophrenics. Each chapter revolves around a topic heading moderated by one of the participants. The chapter headings and participant moderators are as follows: (1) Diagnosis and Prognosis-Malcolm Hayward; (2) Schizophrenic Distortions of Communication-Gregory Bateson; (3) Orality-Carl Whitaker; (4) Anality-John Warkentin; (5) Family and Sexuality-Donald Jackson; (6) Counter-transference-Thomas Malone; (7) Management of the Patient-John Rosen; and (8) Family Management-Edward Taylor. Each chapter begins with a brief orientation followed by the discussion and concluded with a summary of the material covered.
The roots of psychotherapy
Whitaker, Carl A; Malone, Thomas P.
(1953). 236 pp. Oxford, England: Blakiston Co.; England.
This book is divided into three sections dealing respectively with the foundation, the process, and techniques of psychotherapy. The type of therapy advocated by the authors is a brief, intensive therapy, the emphasis of which is the patient-therapist relationship. 63-item bibliography.
Preverbal aspects of psychotherapy with schizophrenic patients
Whitaker, Carl A.
A.M.A. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry. Vol.67 1952, pp. 834-837.
AB Source contains an abstract only.
A comparison of individual and multiple psychotherapy
Warkentin, John; Johnson, Nan L; Whitaker, Carl A.
Psychiatry: Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes. Vol.14 1951, pp. 415-418.
The approach of multiple therapy is described and evaluated in contrast with individual therapy.
A philosophical basis for brief psychotherapy
Whitaker, Carl A; Warkentin, John; Johnson, Nan.
Psychiatric Quarterly. Vol.23 1949, pp. 439-443.
Brief psychotherapy used experimentally with two therapists treating one patient has been found valuable in teaching as well as in helping the patient break the pattern of child-like attachments. Three principles are elaborated upon; (1) Therapist directive in developing emotional relationship. (2) Therapist consistently refuse to participate in patient’s real life or decisions. (3) Healthy counter-transference.
Compensation for psychiatric disabilities in industry
Whitaker, Carl A.
Occupational Medicine. Vol.5 1948, pp. 391-395.
Until recently psychiatric care has not been included in compensation for industrial accidents. In evaluation of psychiatric disability, a modification of the method used by United States Army medical officers is suggested: (1) the diagnosis, (2) the predisposition, (3) the precipitating stress, and (4) the functional incapacity. The psychiatrist’s place in problems of industrial accidents is considered. “It is hoped that this contribution will stimulate further discussion from which will emerge a set of principles that will have general acceptance.”
A Comparison of Individual and Multiple Psychotherapy.
John Warkentin, Nan Johnson, Carl Whitaker, Originally published in Psychiatry, November 1, 1951
The Psychiatric Interview. Harry Stack Sullivan, Psychiatry; Nov 1, 1951
Patient-Therapist Relationship in Multiple Psychotherapy – I. Its Advantages to the Therapist (PDF)
BY RUDOLF DREIKURS, M. D. ; BERNARD H. SHULMAN, M. D., AND HAROLD MOSAK, Ph.D., unknown pub, unknown date
Some Values of the Use of Multiple Therapists in the Treatment of Psychoses (PDF)
BY MALCOLM L. HAYWARD, M. D., JOSEPH J. PETERS, M. D., AND J. EDWARD TAYOR M. D.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01796033m – example for Mansfield
The treatment of neurosyphilis in a psychiatric clinic
Davidoff, Eugene, and Whitaker, Carl A. :
Dis. of Nerv. System, 1:113-121, April, 1940.
Without Psychosis – Chronic Alcoholism, a follow-up study, Whitaker – 20 pages. This is a “condensation of thesis” for Whitaker’s Master of Arts in psychology from Syracuse University, in YEAR.